On the 10 countries with the most abundant mineral resources in the world

Mineral resources are very important natural resources. They are formed after millions of years or even hundreds of millions of years of geological changes. They are an important material basis for the development of social production. The so-called mineral resources refer to natural resources in solid, liquid and gaseous states that are formed by geological processes and have utilization value. There are about 3,000 known minerals, most of which are solid inorganic substances, liquid (such as petroleum, natural mercury), gaseous (such as natural gas, carbon dioxide and helium) and solid organic substances (such as oil shale, amber) only. Dozens of them. Among the solid minerals, most of them belong to crystalline minerals, and only a few (such as allophane) belong to amorphous minerals. Natural elements or compounds from other celestial bodies other than Earth are called cosmic minerals.

Minerals are extremely important strategic resources for all countries in the world, and they are the focus of the game of all countries in the world. The distribution of global mineral resources is extremely uneven, and the top ten countries in mineral resources account for more than 80% of global mineral resources. The following are respectively introduced as follows:


1. Russia

Estimated value of resources: $92 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Russia is the country with the largest land area in the world, and most of its regions are within the range of 50°-70° north latitude. It is precisely because of the high latitude that the temperature in Russia is low all year round; the vast area provides conditions for complex terrain and rich minerals.

Russia has a complete range of mineral resources and is very rich in reserves. It is one of the few countries in the world that is self-sufficient in resources.

Russia has huge potential for mineral resources, once possessing 37% of the world's mineral resources. More than 20,000 mineral deposits (including fuel resources) have been discovered and identified in Russia. According to relevant information, in the structure of the mineral base, ferrous and non-ferrous metals account for 13%, non-metallic mineral raw materials account for 15%, and diamonds and precious metals account for 1%. Russia has a higher level of protection of mineral resources than other countries, and most of its mineral reserves rank among the top in the world.

Russia's natural resources mainly include coal, oil, natural gas, gold, wood, iron and so on. Russia has 13.1 billion acres of forests, with a forest volume of 80.7 billion cubic meters, ranking first in the world; oil reserves ranking seventh in the world; natural gas reserves ranking first in the world; freshwater resources 4.7 trillion cubic meters ranking second in the world; Coal reserves are second in the world; gold reserves are third in the world; rare earth reserves are second in the world; diamond reserves are first in the world; uranium reserves are seventh in the world. The proven reserves of iron ore, diamond, antimony and tin ore rank first in the world, aluminum ore reserves rank second, potash reserves account for 31% of the world's reserves, and cobalt ore reserves account for 21%.

Some other mineral reserves in Russia also account for a considerable share of the world. Such rich mineral resources are a solid foundation for ensuring Russia's domestic demand and realizing its export. 37% of Russia's mineral resources have been put into industrial development. The mining industry plays an important role in supporting the country's economic survival during the difficult period of Russia's economy. As early as the 1990s, when the mining volume of minerals (excluding diamond) declined, the mining volume of a series of Russian minerals (coal, nickel, cobalt, iron, rare metals, platinum, diamond, apatite, potash, etc.) It still accounts for a certain proportion of the world, and is the world's largest exporter of major non-ferrous metals: aluminum, copper and nickel. The export of mineral raw materials and their processed products (excluding oil and natural gas) guarantees more than 20% of Russia's foreign exchange earnings. The vast majority of Russian mineral resources are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East in its east. This region contains more than 80% of Russia's proven various mineral resources, and the potential value of reserves has reached about 25 trillion US dollars. It is Russia's most important mineral raw material base. Moreover, it is also an area where the only remaining mineral resources in the world have not been fully exploited and utilized.


2. America

Estimated value of resources: $59 trillion

Overview of Mineral Resources: The United States is a federal republic constitutional system consisting of Washington, District of Columbia, 50 states, and many overseas territories such as Guam. With a land area of 9.63 million square kilometers (plus the sovereign part of the United States in the Great Lakes and coastal waters such as estuaries, harbors, and inland seas), with a population of 320 million, it is a country of immigrants.

The United States is an important producer and consumer of mineral products in the world. The total amount of mineral resources in the United States is very rich. More than 2,500 kinds of minerals have been discovered. It has been confirmed by geological exploration that there are 88 kinds of minerals with proven mineral reserves in the United States, making it one of the countries with the most abundant proven reserves in the world. Although the total amount of mineral resources in the United States is rich, some mineral resources are not rich, and some mineral resources are even mainly imported from abroad. Among many minerals, the more abundant resources are: coal, uranium and other energy minerals, copper, gold, molybdenum, lead, zinc and other metal mineral resources and boron, sulfur, phosphate, trona, bentonite , diatomite, kaolin, wollastonite, talc, gypsum and other non-metallic mineral resources. Among them, copper mine, gold mine and chemical fertilizer and chemical mineral resources are the most abundant. In addition, the United States also leads the world in mineral reserves or resources such as gypsum, talc (and pyrophyllite), kaolin, and bentonite.

For the United States, petroleum energy resources, iron ore and manganese ore, chrome ore, nickel ore and other iron and steel mineral resources are not rich, bauxite and arsenic ore, bismuth ore, tungsten ore, tin ore, quartz, fluorite, mica ore Dozens of other minerals are in short supply.

The U.S. oil and gas resources are mainly distributed in more than 30 oil and gas basins in the five major oil and gas regions of the country. The five major oil and gas regions are: Gulf of Mexico oil and gas region, North American platform oil and gas region, California oil and gas region, Rocky Mountain oil and gas region and Alaska oil and gas region. At present, the proven oil reserves are mainly concentrated in 4 states including Texas, Louisiana, Alaska and California. Among them, the oil reserves in Texas account for 22% of the total reserves of the United States, Louisiana accounts for 20%; Alaska accounts for 20%; California accounts for 18%. U.S. coal resources are mainly distributed in Montana, Illinois, Wyoming, West Virginia, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Texas and Indiana, among which Montana and Illinois It is the two states with the richest coal resources in the United States. The coal resources in Montana account for 24% of the total coal resources in the United States, and Illinois accounts for 21% of the total coal resources in the United States. U.S. metal mineral resources such as copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, molybdenum, uranium, etc. are mainly distributed in the western region, including Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Montana, Idaho, California, Alaska, Colorado and New Mexico and other states. Iron ore resources are mainly distributed in the Lake Superior area.

The United States ranks second in the world with a natural resource value of $59 trillion. It once owned 32% of the world's coal, the third largest rare earth reserves, and ranks among the world's largest reserves of wood, natural gas, oil, gold and copper. The rare earth reserves are the third in the world; the copper reserves are 91 million tons, ranking second in the world; the oil reserves are the 12th in the world; the natural gas reserves are the fifth in the world; the coal reserves are the first in the world; freshwater resources are 3.05 trillion cubic meters 3rd in the world; 5th in the world in gold reserves.


3. Saudi Arabia

Estimated value of resources: $47 trillion


Overview of mineral resources: Saudi Arabia is a veritable "Kingdom of Oil" in the world. Its oil reserves and production ranks first in the world, making it one of the richest countries in the world. Saudi Arabia is the world's largest producer of desalinated seawater, and its desalination volume accounts for about 21% of the world's total. Saudi Arabia used to be a desert country with barren land, scarce resources and sparsely populated areas. The discovery of oil in the Dhahran area in 1938 marked a fundamental change in Saudi history. Relying on the development and utilization of oil resources, Saudi Arabia has developed from a poor country into a powerful emerging country with the highest per capita income in the world.

Saudi Arabia has gold, silver, copper, iron, bauxite, phosphorus and other minerals. Onshore and offshore oil and gas reserves are abundant along the eastern Persian Gulf coast. The Buraimi Oasis in the east of the Rub al-Khali Desert is a disputed area between Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. As early as 2005, Saudi Arabia's oil production ranked first in the world, and it exported oil. The remaining recoverable reserves were 36.3 billion tons (accounting for 26% of the world's reserves), and the three indicators ranked first in the world. The annual output of natural gas once accounted for 4% of the world's reserves, ranking fourth in the world.

Saudi Arabia is extremely rich in oil resources, and its proven oil reserves are the highest in the world, accounting for about 1/4 of the world's total reserves. Not only that, Saudi Arabia's oil also has the characteristics of various qualities, ranging from heavy oil to light oil, which can meet the needs of refineries around the world. Saudi Arabia's Petroleum Exploration Engineering Center is one of the largest and most advanced scientific research facilities in the world, and it is second to none in the Middle East. The widely used three-dimensional seismic detection technology can accurately delineate the boundaries of newly discovered oil layers; the use of lateral drilling technology makes it possible to explore in difficult areas and offshore.

The most successful exploration in Saudi Arabia is in Central Arabia. The crude oil extracted from here is basically free of sulfur and very light, and the crude oil can be refined into light products with high added value at very low cost. Saudi Arabia also vigorously develops drilling platform technology and strives to tap the potential of offshore oil production. Since the large-scale exploration in the 1960s, Saudi Arabia has discovered about 70 oil and gas fields, including the world's largest Jiawo oil field and the world's largest offshore oil field, the Safaniya oil field.

To sum up, Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, the world's sixth largest natural gas reserves and rich deposits of gold, silver, copper, iron, bauxite, phosphorus and other minerals. Overall, the country ranks third in the world with about $47 trillion in natural resources.


4. Canada

Estimated value of resources: $43 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Canada has a territory of 9.98 million square kilometers, ranking second in the world. Canada is known as the "Land of Maple Leafs", and its capital is Ottawa. Canada is a typical English-French bilingual country. Benefiting from abundant natural resources and highly developed technology and economy, it is one of the most developed countries and one of the largest and most important diamond producing countries in the world.

Canada is very rich in mineral resources, and there are about 70 kinds of minerals known. Its mineral resources occupy a very important position in the world, and the reserves of many minerals are in the forefront of the world. Among them, the mineral reserves ranked first in the world are indium, potassium salt, sulfur; the second ranked are: petroleum, niobium, tungsten, asbestos; especially the crude oil reserves ranked second in the world after Saudi Arabia, of which 97% In the form of oil sands. The proven oil sands crude oil reserves are 173.2 billion barrels, accounting for 81% of the world's proven oil sands reserves. Uranium, cadmium, selenium, and gypsum are ranked third; nickel, lead, platinum group metals, molybdenum, and tantalum are ranked fourth; diamond, zinc, and gold are ranked sixth; Silver, Titanium; Coal at No. 10; Copper at No. 12; Iron Ore at No. 13.

The forest area is 6 billion mu, and the timber volume is 19 billion cubic meters, ranking third in the world; Canada's freshwater resources of 2.9 trillion cubic meters are the fourth in the world. Nickel ore reserves are 7.89 million tons, accounting for nearly 15% of the world, ranking second. Zinc ore ranks first in the world. Canada ranks fourth in the world in terms of resource reserves, with a total resource valuation of approximately US$43 trillion.


5. Iran

Estimated value of resources: $39 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Iran has a land area of about 1,648,195 square kilometers, ranking eighteenth in the world. Iran is one of the major economies in Asia with strong economic strength. Iran's economy is dominated by oil exploration. It is a major oil and natural gas country in the world. It is located in the Middle East, where the world's oil and natural gas is most abundant. Oil export is the lifeblood of the economy. Its oil production capacity and oil export volume are ranked fourth and second in the world, respectively.

Iran has about 3,800 proven mines with mineral reserves of 27 billion tons; of which iron ore reserves are 4.7 billion tons, and copper ore reserves are 3 billion tons (with an average grade of 0.8%), accounting for 5% of the world's total reserves and ranking third in the world; The reserves of zinc ore are 230 million tons (with an average grade of 20%), ranking first in the world; the reserves of chrome ore are 20 million tons, and the reserves of gold ore are 150 tons. In addition, there are a large number of manganese, antimony, lead, boron, barite, marble and other mineral resources. At present, 56 kinds of minerals have been mined, with an annual output of 150 million tons, accounting for 0.55% of the total reserves and 1.2% of the total global mineral production.

It is worth mentioning that Iran owns 10% of the world's oil resources. Iran also has the world's second-largest natural gas resource, mostly in South Parth, with most of the gas being used domestically.

Iran is one of the world's major iron ore producers and exporters, as well as one of my country's major sources of imports. Iron mines in Iran are concentrated in three areas: Sangan, GolGohar and Central Iran. The main iron ore producers are Iran Central Iron Ore Company, Golgohar (Gol · Gehar) Company, Chadormalu (Chador Maru) Company, Mobin (Mobin) Company, etc.

Iran has world-class copper mines. The main copper mines are Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Kerman province, Sungun copper mine and Miduk copper mine in East Azerbaijan province.


6. China

Estimated value of resources: $36 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: China has a land area of about 9.6 million square kilometers, a coastline of more than 18,000 kilometers on the mainland, a coastline of more than 14,000 kilometers on islands, and an area of more than 4.7 million square kilometers in inland seas and border seas. There are more than 7,600 large and small islands in the sea area. China is one of the four ancient civilizations with a long history and culture. It is the third largest country in the world by land area and the largest population in the world. It is the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council along with Britain, France, the United States and Russia.

China has a vast territory, diverse geological conditions and rich mineral resources, with 171 kinds of minerals. There are 157 species with proven reserves. Among them, the proven reserves of tungsten, antimony, rare earth, molybdenum, vanadium and titanium rank first in the world. The reserves of coal, iron, lead-zinc, copper, silver, mercury, tin, nickel, apatite, asbestos, etc. all rank among the top in the world.

China began to utilize mineral resources at least 500,000 years ago (see Zhoukoudian Paleoanthropic Site). In the Ming Dynasty and earlier, the utilization technology of mineral resources was in the advanced position in the world at that time.

The total water resources in China account for 44.2% of the total precipitation, with an average of 290,000 cubic meters of water per square kilometer. The total amount of freshwater resources is 2.8 trillion cubic meters, ranking sixth in the world, and the per capita occupancy is 1/4 of the world's per capita occupancy. China's forest area is 195 million hectares, with a forest coverage rate of 20.36%, and the area of artificial forests ranks first in the world. . China is one of the countries with the richest animal resources in the world. According to statistics, there are about 2,070 species of terrestrial vertebrates in China, accounting for 9.8% of the world's terrestrial vertebrates. Among them, there are more than 1,170 species of birds, more than 400 species of beasts, and 184 species of amphibians, accounting for 13.5%, 11.3% and 7.3% of the world's similar animals respectively. There are many kinds of plants. According to statistics, there are 300 families, 2980 genera and 24600 species of seed plants. Among them, there are 2946 genera of angiosperms (accounting for 23.6% of the total genera of angiosperms in the world). Relatively ancient plants, accounting for about 62% of the world's total genera. Some plants, such as Metasequoia, Ginkgo, etc., have been extinct in other parts of the world in modern times, and they are all "living fossils" remaining in China. Seed plants have both cold, warm and tropical plants, and there are many more species than all of Europe. In addition, there are a variety of cultivated plants. In terms of use, useful timber trees

There are more than 1,000 kinds of medicinal plants, more than 4,000 kinds of medicinal plants, more than 300 kinds of fruit plants, more than 500 kinds of fiber plants, more than 300 kinds of starch plants, more than 600 kinds of oil plants, and more than 80 kinds of vegetable plants, making it the most abundant plant resource in the world. one of the countries.

China has the world's largest reserves of 5 kinds of minerals:

1. Tungsten ore

China is the country with the most abundant tungsten ore resources in the world. There are 252 proven tungsten deposits in 23 provinces (regions). The main tungsten mining areas are Shizhuyuan tungsten mine in Hunan, Xihuashan, Dajishan, Pangushan, Guimeishan in Jiangxi, Lianhuashan tungsten mine in Guangdong, Xingluokeng tungsten mine in Fujian, Taergou tungsten mine in Gansu, and Sandaozhuang aluminum-tungsten mine in Henan. Mine etc.

Dayu County, Jiangxi, China, is a world-famous "tungsten capital".

2. Antimony ore

China is one of the earliest countries in the world to discover and utilize antimony ore. There are records of antimony in ancient books such as "Hanshu Food and Goods", "Historical Records" and so on. my country's antimony ore reserves and output rank first in the world, and it is exported in large quantities to produce high-purity metal antimony (containing 99.999% antimony) and high-quality super antimony white, representing the world's advanced production level of antimony industry. my country is the country with the largest reserves of antimony resources in the world, accounting for 52% of the global total. There are 171 proven antimony mines, mainly distributed in Hunan, Guangxi, Tibet, Yunnan, Guizhou and Gansu. The total proven resource reserves in 6 provinces account for 87.2% of the total proven resource reserves. The province with the largest reserves of antimony resources is Hunan, where the Lengshuijiang tin mine is the world's largest antimony mine, and the annual output of antimony accounts for one-third of the country's total. It is reported that 60% of the antimony ore imported by the United States comes from my country.

3. Bentonite

Bentonite is a precious non-metallic mineral resource with more than 1,000 uses, so it is also known as "universal clay" and is known as "universal material".

China's bentonite ore resources are very rich, and the estimated resources are more than 7 billion tons. There is a complete range of calcium-based and sodium-based bentonites, in addition to hydrogen-based, aluminum-based, soda-calcium-based and unclassified bentonites.

4. Titanium

It is estimated that the total amount of ilmenite and rutile resources in the world exceeds 2 billion tons, and the economically exploitable reserves are 770 million tons. In the relatively clear titanium resource reserves in the world, ilmenite accounts for 94%, and the rest is rutile. my country is the country with the largest reserves of ilmenite, with reserves of 220 million tons, accounting for 28.6% of the world's total reserves.

Titanium mines in China are distributed in more than 10 provinces. Titanium ore is mainly titanium ore, rutile ore and ilmenite placer in vanadium titanomagnetite. The titanium in vanadium titanomagnetite is mainly produced in the Panzhihua area of Sichuan. Rutile mines are mainly produced in Hubei, Henan, Shanxi and other provinces. Ilmenite placer is mainly produced in Hainan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and other provinces (regions). The TiO2 reserve of ilmenite is 357 million tons, ranking first in the world.

5. Rare earth ore

China is a country with the largest reserves of rare earth resources in the world. It is not only rich in reserves, but also has the advantages of complete minerals and rare earth elements, high rare earth grades and reasonable distribution of ore points, which has laid a solid foundation for the development of China's rare earth industry. The main rare earth mines in China are: Bayan Obo rare earth mine, Shandong Weishan rare earth mine, Mianning rare earth mine, Jiangxi weathering crust leaching type rare earth mine, Hunan brown yttrium niobium mine and seaside placer mine on the long coastline, etc.

The Bayan Obo rare earth mine and iron coexist. The total rare earth reserves REO is 35 million tons, accounting for about 38% of the world's reserves, making it the largest rare earth mine in the world.


7. Brazil

Estimated value of resources: $34 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Brazil has a land area of 8.515 million square kilometers and is the largest country in Latin America with a population of 189.32 million, ranking first in Latin America. Brazil's economic strength ranks among Latin American countries. The export of mineral products is an important source of Brazil's foreign trade surplus.

Brazil is a country rich in mineral resources. Many important minerals are in the forefront of the world, mainly including petroleum, iron ore, manganese ore, niobium-tantalum ore, nickel ore, tin ore, zinc ore, lithium ore, bauxite, graphite, kaolin , talc, vermiculite, magnesite, etc. Currently, there are about 50 kinds of minerals with proven reserves.

Brazil is the second largest oil and gas resource country in South America after Venezuela. According to BP Statistical Review WorldEnergy, June 2008, Brazil's remaining proven recoverable oil reserves are 1.67 billion tons. Offshore oil reserves account for 88% of Brazil's total reserves. Brazil is rich in uranium resources, with proven reserves of about 163,000 tons, U3O8 grade of 0.104%, and the proven reserves account for 6% of the world's proven reserves. Brazil currently has only 25% of its territory explored for uranium resources.

Brazil is very rich in iron ore resources, with proven reserves of 16 billion tons, ranking fifth in the world. Brazil has a large amount of iron ore prospective resources. The two largest iron ore areas in Brazil, Iron Quadrangle and Carajas, are world-class super-large iron ore mines and are operated by Vale Mining Company (CVRD) and MBR Mining Company. 80% of the country's total output. The vast majority of iron ore types in Brazil are hematite and ferrite.

Brazil is rich in manganese ore resources, with proven reserves of 132 million tons, ranking fourth in the world. Bauxite: Brazil is rich in bauxite resources, with proven reserves of 2.70 billion tons, accounting for 8.4% of the world's bauxite resources, ranking third in the world. More than 90% of the bauxite resources are located in Barra, northern Brazil. State (Para). Brazil is very rich in niobium-tantalum ore resources, with proven reserves of 3.761 million tons and 884,000 tons respectively, ranking first in the world. Brazil's proven graphite reserves are 113 million tons, and the graphite resources are very rich, ranking second in the world in terms of proven graphite reserves. The best graphite in Brazil is located in the city of Pedra Azul.

The proven reserves of kaolin in Brazil are 7.7 billion tons. Brazil is the second largest producer and exporter of kaolin after the United States and the United Kingdom. It produces high-quality coated kaolin for papermaking. The proven reserves of magnesite in Brazil are 345 million tons, accounting for 8.9% of the world's magnesite resources. The proven reserves of vermiculite in Brazil are 23 million tons, accounting for 10.3% of the world's proven vermiculite reserves. The proven reserves of phosphate rock in Brazil are 246 million tons, making it the country with the largest phosphate production in South America. Brazil is the largest crystal producer in the world.

To sum up, the main minerals produced in Brazil include oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper ore, chromite, gemstone, gold ore, kaolin, manganese ore, niobium-tantalum ore, tin ore, niobium-tantalum alloy , graphite, asbestos, tin ore, magnesite, vermiculite, granite, talc, phosphate ore, etc.


8. Australia

Estimated value of resources: $32 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Surrounded by the sea, Australia is the only country in the world that covers the entire continent, and has many unique animals, plants and natural landscapes. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometers, Australia is the most economically developed country in the southern hemisphere, the 12th largest economy in the world, the fourth largest exporter of agricultural products in the world, and the world's largest exporter of various minerals. country". Australia is also the country with the largest number of sheep in the world and the largest export of wool.

Australia is rich in mineral resources, oil and natural gas, and there are at least 70 kinds of mineral resources. Among them, bauxite reserves rank first in the world, accounting for 35% of the world's total reserves. Australia is the world's largest producer of bauxite, alumina, diamonds, lead, and tantalum. Australia's output of gold, iron ore, coal, lithium, manganese ore, nickel, silver, uranium, and zinc also ranks among the top in the world.

Australia is also the world's largest exporter of bituminous coal, bauxite, lead, diamonds, zinc and concentrates, the second largest exporter of alumina, iron ore and uranium ore, and the third largest exporter of aluminium and gold.

Australia's proven mineral reserves with economic mining value: about 3.1 billion tons of bauxite, 15.3 billion tons of iron ore, 511 billion tons of bituminous coal, 411 billion tons of lignite, 17.2 million tons of lead, 9 million tons of nickel, and 9 million tons of silver. 40,600 tons, 18,000 tons of tantalum, 34 million tons of zinc, 610,000 tons of uranium, and 4,404 tons of gold. Australia's crude oil reserves are 240 billion liters, natural gas reserves are 1.36 trillion cubic meters, and liquefied petroleum gas reserves are 174 billion liters. The forest coverage area accounts for 20% of the national land, the natural forest area is about 155 million hectares (2/3 is eucalyptus), and the timber forest area is 1.22 million hectares.

9. Venezuela

Estimated value of resources: $29 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Venezuela is located in the north of South America and is world-renowned for its rich oil resources. It is one of the countries with the most abundant proven oil reserves in the world. Oil is the most important mineral resource, with reserves accounting for about 4% of the world's reserves, ranking first in South America. The first one. Venezuela is the most important oil-producing country in Latin America, and its main oil deposit area is the largest lake in Latin America, Lake Maracaibo, in the northwest corner of the border.

Venezuela is also rich in iron, aluminum, nickel, gold, diamond, coal and other mineral resources, in addition to copper, lead, zinc, vanadium, titanium, phosphorus, gypsum, feldspar, barite, asbestos and many more. Mineral resources such as clay and rare earth minerals. Petroleum and mineral exports play an important role in the Venezuelan national economy.

Venezuela's national iron ore reserves and resources are 14.678 billion tons, with high grade and few impurities, and the iron metal reserves ranks eighth in the world. Venezuelan nickel mine production also occupies a certain position in the world. The annual nickel mine output is about 20,000 tons, accounting for about 1.3% of the world's total.

Venezuela's ore reserves are more than 2 million tons (the average gold grade is 12 g/ton), ranking 13th in the world and 6th in the American continent. Gold resources are mainly distributed in the state of Bolivar, and most concentrated in the southeastern and eastern regions bordering Brazil and Guyana. The Las Christinas gold mine has reserves of 13 million ounces (about 368.6 tons) and is considered to be one of the largest untapped gold mines in the world. Venezuela is one of the few countries in Latin America that produces diamonds. Venezuela is an important producer of bauxite, alumina and primary aluminum in the world, accounting for 3.4% of the world's total,


10. Iraq

Estimated value of resources: $29 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Iraq is located in the southwestern part of Asia and the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of about 437,000 square kilometers. Iraq was once known as Mesopotamia in history and is one of the main birthplaces of human civilization. The oil industry is the backbone of Iraq's economy, and its crude oil reserves are ranked fourth in the world, after Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and Iran.

Iraq is blessed with unique geographical conditions, rich in oil and natural gas resources, and the oil industry is the main pillar of the economy. Iraq is known as "an island floating in a sea of oil". As early as October 2010, the Iraqi oil minister stated that the proven reserves of 143.1 billion barrels accounted for 12.0% and 9.8% of the total proven oil reserves of OPEC and the world respectively, ranking second in the world; the proven reserves of natural gas were 3.17%. trillion cubic meters, accounting for 1.7% of the world's total proven reserves, ranking tenth in the world. Phosphate reserves are about 10 billion tons.